HID Explained in Detail

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Mick.
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HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » June 7th, 2013, 8:18 pm

I'll start out with the Dictionary which explains what everything means. These also refer to HID projector lighting not just spotlights which was an after thought of true HID lighting.

4300K: a Kelvin rating for an HID bulb that's generally white/off white in color.

5000K: a Kelvin rating for an HID bulb that's generally pure white in color.

6000K: a Kelvin rating for an HID bulb that's generally white with a tinge of blue in color.

85122: The original Philips D2S bulb. 35w, 4300K

85122+: The newer generation Philips D2S bulb, 35w, 4300K, more lumens, less resistant to color shifting (stays 4300K for longer, resists lumen loss over time)

9007/4: Standard 3 pin halogen headlight bulb setup. One bulb for low/high beam purposes.

AFS: Acronym for Adaptive Front Lighting system, where the projectors turn with the steering wheel to help visibility around corners.

Aiming adjusters: The knobs on the backside of a headlight that allow one to adjust the beam pattern up/down and side to side.

AMP/amp adapter: AMP is a universal type of connection between aftermarket HID kit ballasts and their bulbs. The adapter will allow these aftermarket ballasts with AMP outputs to be used with D2S bulbs.

Autoleveling system: When the headlight's beam automatically levels itself as the vehicle is driven up or down a sloping road. Inputs from the vehicle's ECU signal electric motors to push in or out, adjusting the aim of the projector/reflector up or down.

Auxiliary reflector: a secondary reflector used to intensify the outer edges of a beam pattern. Lexus LS430 projectors are infamous for their excellent width because of their use of Auxiliary reflectors. Infiniti M35/45 projectors also use these, but not as successfully.

Ballast: the catalyst for the HID light bulb

Beam pattern: The output emitted from a xenon or bi-xenon projector. Generally has a defined shape with a stepped upper light cutoff line, visible width limits, and a foreground cutoff.

Bezel: The decorative trim cover that goes over a projector to enhance the aesthetics of a retrofit. Serves no purpose other than looks.

Bixenon: a projector that is switch-able between low and high beam mode.

Bixenon control box: similar to a typical relay, but also compensates for the lack of a low beam signal to keep the ballasts turned on when the high beams are active. The heart of our bi-xenon relay wire harnesses.

Bixenon solenoid: solenoid that when power is applied, pulls or pushes the cutoff shield out of the way to activate the projector's high beam.

Bulb clip: the clips that holds the bulb into the projector snugly and in the right position.

Bulb spacer: A thin spacer inserted in between the base of the D2S bulb and the reflector bowl/bulb holder to enhance light distribution and the size of the hotspot. (works well for some projectors, not so well on others)

Butyl rubber: The most typical kind of glue that seals the two halves of headlights together. Becomes pliable when heated.

Capsule: Commonly used interchangeably with just "bulb" - the capsule is technically the little glass bubble inside the HID bulb that houses the halide salts.

CCFL: Cold Cathode Flourescent Lamp - common for angel eyes.

Clear lens: An optically clear glass projector lens that enhances the performance and aesthetic characteristics of a projector's output.

Color band: a band of colorful light spread across the beam pattern's cutoff line.

Color flicker: the effect projector headlights give off when their color band flashes in and out of the field of view of onlookers

Color mod: a modification to a projector that creates more color/color flicker

Color shift: As HID bulbs age, they shift from their original color to become more of a pure white/bluish color. That's why older cars with factory HID's have headlights that look more blue compared to brand new ones, even though they're using 4300K bulbs.

Cutoff line: The line that separates light below from darkness above in a projectors beam pattern

Cutoff shield: a plate (fixed or hinged) inside the projector that defines the shape of the beam pattern.

Cutoff step: The step in the middle of a beam pattern's cutoff line. Refer to LHD/RHD

D1S: A newer generation of HID light bulbs with the igniter built into the base. D1 signifies that the igniter is built in, S means that the bulb is for use in xenon/bixenon projectors.

D2R: The standard light bulb used in most older, reflector based xenon headlamp systems. D2 designates the base, "R" stands for reflected, as in a typical headlight reflector.

D2S: The standard light bulb used in most modern high performance xenon/bi-xenon headlamp systems. D2 designates the base, "S" stands for shielded - as in cutoff shield.

D4S: An even newer generation of HID light bulbs that is similar to D2S, but is mercury-free so is more environmentally friendly. Philips "XenEco" bulbs for example. Also marginally brighter with several hundred more lumens.

Diffused lens: a lens on a headlight that has refractive lines cast into it to scatter the light into a proper beam pattern. No good for retrofitting projectors.

Digital ballast: A "smart" ballast that will shut itself down before self-destructing from failed attempts at hot-striking a bulb, moisture intrusion, etc.

Diode: A key electrical component for bi-xenon wire harnesses that don't use a bixenon control box. This "one way road" for electricity allows the relay to remain active when the high beams are turned on.

DL50: High end 50/55w D2S light bulb produced by Philips Germany. A nice bulb, but probably not worth it's high end price.

DOT Step: The step in the middle of the light cutoff line is more vertical opposed to slanted.

Double-cutoff: An ailment in the beam pattern where the upper cutoff line has a yellowish shadow /ghost under it. Usually corrected for by simply pushing lightly on the cutoff shield forward towards the lens.

DRL: Acronym for Daytime Running Light

ECE: Acronym for Economic Commission of Europe. They determine the acceptable standards for automotive lighting in Europe.

ECE step: The step in the middle of the light cutoff line is more slanted opposed to vertical.

Electrodes: two thin metal contacts on both sides of the halide salt capsule inside the light bulb. These arc with electricity upon ignition from the ballast to create a light reaction inside the bulb.

Focus height: The distance between the flat bottom on a projector lens and the top of the rounded crest on the face. Crucial for creating a focused beam pattern.

Foreground cutoff: The definition of the beam pattern projected on the ground directly in front of a car. Determined by a the foreground cutoff shield if applicable. The shape can usually be modified to your liking.

Foreground limiter: a secondary cutoff shield inside the projector that creates a defined beam patter n on the ground directly in front of the car.

Fresnel lens: glass projector lens with concentric rings molded into it to soften and distribute the output

H4/9003: Standard 3 pin halogen headlight bulb setup. One bulb for low/high beam purposes.

H7: A common halogen low beam projector bulb type. The most similar halogen bulb to a D2S xenon bulb.

Halide salts: the alkaline salts used inside of an HID bulbs capsule. When electricity strikes across the electrodes, it creates a reaction with the salts that makes light.

HID: Acronym for High Intensity Discharge headlamps or spot lights

Hot-strike: An attempt (successful or not) to re-ignite an HID light bulb immediately after it was just turned off.

Housing cap: The rubber cap that seals the rear side of a headlight housing.

Igniter: the component that ramps up the voltage using a series of capacitors to ignite the HID bulb. Generally integrated with the ballast, but in the case of D1S/R bulbs, is integrated into the base of the actual light bulb.

Igniter cord: Where the igniter is built into the socket that twists onto the back of the D2 light bulb, is integrated with the wiring that extends outwards from the ballast control box.

Inline fuse: Part of a wire harness that protects the wiring and ballasts should something go wrong.

Integrated igniter: Igniter that is built into the ballast

Inverter: the power supply for a CCFL angel eye system

Kelvin: A measure of the color of a bulb. Lower = more yellower, Higher = more blue/purple

LED: Acronym for Light Emitting Diode.

Lens retainer: the metal ring that holds the glass projector lens onto the unit. Usually either pressed on, or screwed on.

Lens spacers: used to fine tune the focus of a projector's beam pattern. Commonly made of metal rings or thin cardboard.

LHD: Left hand drive - projectors designated as LHD are for use in places like North America, where oncoming traffic drives on the left side of us. Relates to the shape of the beam pattern and creating (or really, not creating, glare)

Lumen: measure of intensity of a bulb. More lumens = bright

OEM: Acronym for Original Equipment Manufacture, meaning parts that you would find factory-installed on a production car.

Optics: branch of physics that studies properties and behaviors of light.

P32-D: The standard designation for a D2 (D2S/D2R) bulb base shape and its corresponding ballast socket type.

Pediddle: A car with a headlight burned out. Ouch!

Pigtail: any kind of component input with a socket on one end and wires coming out the other. Used for ballasts, bi-xenon solenoids most commonly.

Pin-out: The order of the metal contacts/pins in an input socket for a relay wire harness.

PNP: Acronym for Plug n Play

Potted: protection for electrical components inside a ballast achieved by surrounding them with "goop" that prevents them from moisture damage.

Projector: The assembly that captures and focuses the light from the bulb and projects it out onto the road in a defined beam pattern.

Ray-trace: The precision measurement of light rays and the direction they are emitted from a light source. Important consideration in designing optical systems like projectors.

Rebased: term used to describe HID bulbs that have been modified for use in housings not designed to originally accept them. Shape of the plastic base has been changed to fit.

Reflector bowl: The back half of a projector that holds the bulb, is chromed inside to reflect light forward through the cutoff shield/projector lens.

Relay: An electrical switch that has an input pin, an output pin, a switch pin, and a ground. The heart of a proper headlight wire harness.

Retrofit: The process of installing modern high performance lighting components into a typical halogen reflector style headlight housing to enhance performance and looks.

Return wire: The metal wire that comes out of the top of an HID bulb, bends 180 degrees and goes down into the base to meet a contact which goes to a ground on the ballast. It's an extension of the 2nd electrode on the bulb, is usually covered with a ceramic sleeve to protect from arc'ing.

RHD: projectors designated as RHD are for use in places like the UK or Australia, where oncoming traffic drives on the left side. Relates to the shape of the beam pattern and creating (or really, not creating, glare)

Rotational alignment: A crucial step in mounting projectors to ensure the final beam pattern is horizontally flat.

S2k-R: The Retrofit Source's ultra high performance low beam projector that has been designed specifically for the purpose of retrofitting.

Sealed beam: A one piece headlight housing/light bulb commonly used in older automotive applications.

Shroud: The decorative trim cover that goes over a projector to enhance the aesthetics of a retrofit. Serves no purpose other than looks.

Warm up: The few seconds after the ballast ignites the bulb, it warms up to full operating intensity.

Xenon: Same thing as High Intensity Discharge headlamps
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » June 7th, 2013, 8:44 pm

I'll explain how ballasts are rated here in detail.

All OEM ballasts have there wattage read at the bulb so if you have a Denso, Hella or Bosch ballast rated at 35 watts then it's rated at 35 watts at the bulb. These have true readings and have to pass many tests to be legally fitting to cars as OEM. They are to read 35 watts no more and no less. They need to be at there brightest in about 3 seconds from memory. Most also come with there ignitors internally fitted in the ballast so no black box handing off the cord. Although these are the best ballasts to use for speed, reliability and are true 35 watts most have a down side. They are not water proof and need to be potted prior to being fitted outside a light. Potting means resin filled with a special non conductive resin.

Now with the Chinese they like to make things sound better then they are so there sneaky in the way they measure there outputs. The Chinese ballasts you see on ebay are measured at the ballast end not the bulb end so they don't allow for voltage drop is if a bit at about 40kv (40,000 bolts). So if you have a 35 watt ballast from China it reads about 30 watts at the bulb, with you have a 50 watt ballast then it will read about 43 to 45 watts at the ballast. if you have a 70 watt ballast they read about 45 to 55 watts at the bulb and I'm yet to see a slim line one come close to 70 watts. Then we have the 100 watt Chinese ballasts (can be bought for $10 each from china :lol: ). These start out at about 85 watts and after about 12 months if there still running drop to about 70 watts. Almost all these ballasts are potted though so there all pretty much waterproof. The 100 watt versions seem to get water in though the cords and fail though but almost all the others are fine. The down side of these ballasts other then the wattage is the ignitors are usually on the cord not internally mounted and there slow to warm up. Some of the higher quality Chinese ones are pretty quick though.

If your after a really made reliable ballast you cant go past Hylux Tech. These ballasts are the most copied ballast in the world today so if your not familiar with the ballasts you can easily end up with a copy. There internals are used in a lot of different ballasts including some Philips apparently. The better quality ballasts have the igniters internally mounted so there fatter and more bulkier but a lot better quality in most cases. There is also very cheap low quality ballasts with internal ignitors also so this isnt the case all the time.

I'll ad more info later.

Cheers Mick
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Foo
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Foo » June 10th, 2013, 12:40 pm

Jeez Mick, thanks for that write up and explanation. :thumb:

Foo

Mick.
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » June 10th, 2013, 6:38 pm

No worries mate. There's plenty more of it but I've got to fish though and remove the boring stuff first. :lol:
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boobook
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by boobook » June 18th, 2013, 6:23 am

Mick when I started reading your thread, I thought here we go again. Another HID thread. But as I read on, I realised it was written by someone who has a thorough understanding of the technology and industry. Nice read.

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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » June 23rd, 2013, 7:29 pm

Thanks Boobook.

Here is some more info. I've know most of this for a while but it's just starting to come out in the public now. This was posted on a HID forum the other day. Interesting read and pretty much confirms what I found out though experience myself. The worst part is most suppliers don't even know there selling fakes or at least play dumb when there caught out. I can confirm that Philips does have a factory in China as I've ordered Philips bulbs which where faulty and when I had to send them back they gave me a Chinese address. lol

Let's talk about Philips Ultinon Bulbs first.

Way back in 2001, I bought my first set of Ultinon D2S 6000k from the UK (autolamps). They were totally genuine (no such thing as fakes), came with a pearl effect return wire and cost me more than US$500. These early Ultinons were 100% made in Aachen, Germany. There is only 1 company in the world that makes these pearl effect wires and they are located in Germany. This is why the fakes could never duplicate the return wire due to proprietory manufacturing of these pearl effect wires.

In these 10 + years, it became harder and harder to find Genuine Aachen Made Ultinons, and Philips themselves contributed to this!

Why? Because Philips sent/subcontracted/sold bare bulbs to Asia for manufacturing, so in the market today, there are 100% Genuine, 50% Genuine and 100% FAKE. Even worse, Philips actually has a factory in China making Philips OEM bulbs. This is why Philips doesn't do anything about the fakes or go after the factories making fake products, because they themsleves don't want people to know that many Philips OEM bulbs are now MADE in CHINA but advertised as "GERMANY".

100% Genuine: the newest Ultinons are no longer 100% made in Germany. Philips sends their bare bulbs (Made in Germany) to China where it is assembled. This is why the newest Ultinons NO LONGER have the pearl effect return wire, and why their retail boxes NO LONGER have a Hologram effect. So take a look at both pictures - both ARE Genuine, but 1 is the original Aachen made, and the other (matte blue wire) is made in Philips China Factory.

Pic 1: Ultinon made in Philips Chinese Factory - blue matte return wire
Pic 2: Ultinon made in Philips Aachen Factory - purple pearl effect return wire

BOTH use exactly the same burners, with the requisite red salts. Both are Genuine, but the newest versions made in China now look like fakes, because the fakes always used matte blue return wires. What the hell is Philips thinking????? Now their OWN GENUINE ULTINONS no longer use the pearl effect wires and are in essence copying the fakes by using matte blue return wires!

With D3S/D4S Ultinons, it is even harder to to tell because being Mercury Free, Red Salts are not used. However, I believe that the D3S/D4S Ultinons are STILL made in Aachen Germany, because the return wires remain a purple pearl effect.

50% Genuine Philips Bulbs:

Philips sells their bare bulbs to ANYONE who wants to buy them (provided you meet their MOQ). 1 company I contacted buys their bulbs and makes them into D1S, D2S etc.

These bulbs are ASSEMBLED in Taiwan using GENUINE Philips burners. They aren't marketed as Ultinons nor are they fakes, but for all intents and purposes - they are exactly the same. I bought a set to compare to a set of 6700k D2S Flash Stars = EXACTLY the same.

Pic 3: Philips Packing Box - notice that it says 7000k
Pic 4: Philips Bare Bulbs "6700k"
Pic 5: D2S "Ultinon" 6700k (Flash Star) made by a Taiwanese company using genuine Philips bulbs

If you ask anyone here on the forum, Philips DOES NOT make 7000k burners - must be fake. THEY DO. It is simply marketed as 6700k because in Japan, the highest allowed kelvin is now 6700k. Kelvin ratings by manufacturers can be inaccurate and arbritary. Everyone does it.

Take PIAA for example. They have a product called D1S Super Cobalt 6200k. Advertised as Made in Japan. Reality: Rebranded Osram D1S 62305 5400k Made in Germany. Back in the day, I bought Osram D1S 62305 5400k for about $250. I also bought the PIAA D1S 6200k for almost $500.

I wanted to compare 5400k to 6200k. Installed Osram on 1 side, PIAA on the other.....WTF...they looked EXACTLY the same.

So I peeled back the PIAA label and found Osram 62305 markings. Boy, I was so mad!! I had just paid double for the same bulb

Osram KNOWINGLY sold their bulbs to PIAA, and Osram knew full well that PIAA was rebranding them as 6200k bulbs "Made in Japan"


Philips Branded HID kits:

There is no such thing as a GENUINE 100% Philips HID Kit - never has been. Again, Philips sends there bare bulbs to their factory in China where the bulbs are made into H3, H7 etc.

The ballasts are made by a Chinese company called Hylux - great quality which is why Philips uses them. What Philips does is send their own Ballast covers with the "Philips" engraving to replace the Hylux thinking they can prevent copies. LOL. The factories just copy them so now, even if you see a "Philips" ballast - you have no idea who made it.

http://www.hyluxtek.com/newEbiz1/EbizPo ... ofile.html

Philips has never made their own ballasts or ignitors.

So next time you see a genuine Philips HID kit on ebay claiming to be genuine with it's $400 price tag you will know it's only a $50 kit in a flash box. For the record I've even pulled a Philips ballast apart and they are in fact Hyluxtech ballasts.

I get sick of seeing people getting ripped off which was the reason I posted it.

Cheers Mick
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THE RIG
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by THE RIG » June 29th, 2013, 10:54 pm

thanks mick, very informative and helpful.

JC807
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by JC807 » April 8th, 2014, 4:40 pm

some great reading in here, thanks for posting.

someone posted elsewhere that the halogen projector housing for the DMAX is the same part number as the HID housing in the DMAX sold overseas. Is this possible? If it is, I might try putting some 35w HID in there. If not, i won't bother - i'm not into blinding other drivers.
Mick. wrote: Color mod: a modification to a projector that creates more color/color flicker
sounds like the '1990's blow off valve' craze but for hondas.
previous:-> 06 BF XR6T, 74 KE20 4AGTE, 04 RZN149R, 01 AE112R, 01 KR42R, 84 E30 318i, 67 MINI DELUXE
current:-> 08 VOLVO V50 T5 AWD, MY13 ISUZU D-MAX 4X4

chris_stoffa
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by chris_stoffa » April 8th, 2014, 7:39 pm

Now when it's explained like that and that well then its blindingly obvious isn't it :D
03 Bravo 2.5TD DCab

Mick.
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » April 18th, 2014, 12:15 am

JC807 wrote:some great reading in here, thanks for posting.

someone posted elsewhere that the halogen projector housing for the DMAX is the same part number as the HID housing in the DMAX sold overseas. Is this possible? If it is, I might try putting some 35w HID in there. If not, i won't bother - i'm not into blinding other drivers.
Mick. wrote: Color mod: a modification to a projector that creates more color/color flicker
sounds like the '1990's blow off valve' craze but for hondas.
Hi mate

It is possible but highly unlikely. There are a couple of reasons for this.

1 is the overseas headlights meet different rules so the part numbers of the headlights are more then likely different plus shield angles eg one RHD and one LHD, camber of roads different so is more to projectors and headlights then most realize so an overseas light being the same part is unlikely especially on new cars where they change from one month to the next. lol

2 is you can not buy the projectors from Holden or any dealership for any car make or model separate as they are a sealed headlight and as soon as the seal is broken that light is no longer an ADR approved light so they will never sell the parts separate and being an ex parts interiptor I know they never had break downs of any headlights where the projector part numbers where available as I looked. lol The only way to get these part numbers is actually pull the headlights apart and even then out of over 50 variations of projectors I've seen there are only a handful that had part numbers most don't.

The other is most HID projectors which are Bi Xenon take a D2S, D3S, D4S or D1S bulb. The halogen projector is not designed to take these type of bulbs. If the D max your referring to has separate high and low beam like the new ones then yes it is a possibility but without seeing the projectors first hand I could be sure.

I have pulled many of halogen projectors out and replaced them with HID versions and there chalk and cheese. I could build another thread just on those alone. lol

Here are a couple of pics of what a HID projector looks like as opposed to hids in factory reflectors.
https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set ... 843&type=3

pics of a HID projector next to a halogen projector. There is a big difference in size in most cases.
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid ... 536%2C2048

This is what the cheap halogen projector lights look like with HIDs fitted. As you can see there junk and not even level.
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid ... 1000%2C750

What projector HID should look like.
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid ... =3&theater



Cheers Mick
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JC807
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by JC807 » April 18th, 2014, 12:03 pm

can you put descriptions on your facebook page photos? its would make it easier to tell what they are meant to be highlighting (e.g. good lighting/poor lighting/hid in halogen projector/hid projector retrofit etc).

when I was talking about part numbers, I meant the whole headlight assy. yes i understand LHD and RHD models will be different.
previous:-> 06 BF XR6T, 74 KE20 4AGTE, 04 RZN149R, 01 AE112R, 01 KR42R, 84 E30 318i, 67 MINI DELUXE
current:-> 08 VOLVO V50 T5 AWD, MY13 ISUZU D-MAX 4X4

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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » April 18th, 2014, 9:08 pm

All the photos have detailed descriptions on them you need to click on the photo.

If your referring to the headlight part number then no they would not be the same.
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TheBlackbird
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by TheBlackbird » June 23rd, 2014, 8:26 pm

Mick,

Taking something like this kit into consideration:

http://www.offroadindustries.com.au/pro ... -light-kit
(1990 HJ75 Troopy)

1. It's closer to 'frowned upon' as opposed to illegal, correct?

2. Is the only other option for replacing my current old halogens, apart from the above kit or similar, with new halogen bulbs?

Cheers

EDIT: A Lens cover that directs the light down, will reduce the 'glare' other drivers experience.

"By far the best option for all concerned is to fit a good quality set of halogen headlights with good quality maximum legal wattage lamps AND upgrade the wiring harness to the headlights so the whole thing works to specification.

IF there is a HID headlight that is brighter than that, it is illegal." - whizzo

http://www.ozautoelectrics.com/toyota-l ... e-kit.html
:fish:
1990 HJ75RV

Mick.
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Re: HID Explained in Detail

Unread post by Mick. » June 25th, 2014, 7:45 pm

There are a lot better options then the ones above. I actually keep 7 inch round projector headlights in stock now. They are projector HID as used in most new cars. These projectors are actually in the process of getting DOT approval in the USA but unless your car come out with HID it's still illegal. That is why I always tell people to use 4300K as it's an OEM colour. I've fitted a few to coppers personal cars now too. lol

Most halogen upgrades are illegal to if you want to get technical as most of those aftermarket bulbs including a lot of Philips are illegal also.

I actually saw a Nissan import that had HIDs in reflectors the other day and I was surprised it approval to be on our roads even with LHD headlights fitted still. lol

I personally think poor lighting is worst then being a touch to bright. My old GQ was dangerous.

If you want some options either fully road legal or projector info send me a PM mate.
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